Best Reverse Osmosis Systems – Top 5 Water Filters Reviewed for 2020

You’ll most likely agree with us that the taste of impure and hard tap water is not so appetizing. More so, clean water is tough to come by these days. Luckily, there are now easier and more straightforward ways of making your home water soft, clean, healthy, and usable for all purposes. The answer to this is a reverse osmosis water filter system. These simple devices are easy to use and setup, offering a quick solution to purifying water and eliminating harmful substances.
If you are after the best filter system, this article offers detailed information on the most effective products in the market.

WINNER

Home Master TMAFC Filter

 

The Home Master reverse osmosis system is a filter with a difference, thanks to its impressive housing design, extended lifespan, and immense durability. Home Master clearly understands our need for high quality and great tasting water; thus, it takes your water through various cleansing stages meant to remove all harmful elements typically found in tap water. It also features a 50-gallon capacity, which means you have enough water for a lot of days at your disposal.

RUNNER UP

APEC Reverse Osmosis Filter

 

Our second best and an equally excellent filter system is from the APEC camp; the APEC RO-Hi filter system. This is the best most economical option in the market today and we have no doubt it will be a great addition to your household. As per its features and specifications, it caters to all your contamination and water cleansing needs. This reverse-osmosis water filter is made and engineered in the USA under strict conditions; thus, it poses no threat to your or your family.

ALSO GREAT

Express Water

 

The best in life come in threes, which is why we’re also recommending the Express Water Filter for all your water cleansing worries. The Express Water filter is here to purify your home water with its fantastic features and characteristics. This is an award-winning filter system designed to work efficiently, thanks to its unique six-stage filtration process. It removes all contaminants but keeps the beneficial elements intact for your enjoyment.

This article makes things easier for you; thus, it contains a list of the very best osmosis systems in the market, their specifications, and why we believe they will fit perfectly into your home.

Best Reverse Osmosis Water Filter for 2020 – Top 5 Reviews

  1.   All-Around Best R.O. Filter – Home Master TMAFC

 

Home Master TMAFC Reverse OsmosisWe are sure you are not a fan of the hard tap water found in your home. Luckily, most of the common problems identified in traditional RO systems have been rectified and eliminated with help from professionals at Home Master. After several years of studies and intensive research, they have invented and distributed the most effective filters to all health-conscious individuals around the world. Behold! The Home Master Artesian Undersink reverse osmosis drinking water filter system!

This is an incredible unit carefully designed to deliver pure, great-tasting water to all its users. It utilizes an easy-to-use design, paired exquisitely with a faster flow rate to give you water whenever you need it; no questions asked. Besides its water purification technology, the Home Master Artesian system does a fantastic job of adding the much-needed beneficial minerals required in water for your general wellbeing.

This master RO system strips your water clean through seven rigorous stages of filtration and its architecture has been undertaken such that it meets all NF standards, to merit its incredible 5-year warranty stamp.

Features of TMAFC Undersink Reverse Osmosis Drinking Water Filter

  1. Removes 98-percent of chemicals
  2. All-in-one modular assembly
  3. Long-lasting and easy change filters
  4. No wrenches required
  5. Included fast flow RO kit
Pros
  • Easy to install
  • Long-lasting filters
  • High faucet flow rate
  • Single filter housing design
  • Clean Water at an affordable price
  • BPA Free
Cons
  • Low production rate
  • Leaking issues
  • Expensive

If you are very health conscious, we believe the Home Master Artesian is the best  filter system for you and your family. It is easy to install, durable and comes with long-lasting filters.

  2.   Best Detailed System –  APEC Water Systems Ultimate RO-Hi Top Tier R.O. Drinking Water Filter System

 

APEC Water SystemsEvery home desires pure, clean, and healthy water daily, and there’s no better way to achieve this than with the APEC Ultimate RO-Hi Osmosis System. There’s no better deal in the market today than with this splendid model, designed by another leading manufacturer. Unlike many other R.O. filter systems, the PAEC is described by users and experts alike as the best complete filter system around, and for a good reason.

We love this water filter system because of its top tier five-stage filtration. This process doesn’t demand a lot of time, but it is also comprehensive such that every sip of water you taste is clean, feels fresh, and is free from all impurities. Additionally, the necessary five-step process of this system is backed with an efficiency of 3:1, a ratio higher than most filter systems in the market today.

The APEC has many advantages, but the most prevalent and important for customers is how economical it is. It comes at an affordable price that is accessible to all potential buyers, no matter their budget. You can never go wrong with such a fantastic unit!

Features of APEC Water Systems

  1. Super long-lasting
  2. 100% US-made filters
  3. America engineered and distributed
  4. Tested and certified by WQA
  5. 2-year manufacturer’s warranty
Pros
  • The extensive life span of filters
  • Under-the-counter design
  • High-pressure faucet
  • Affordable price
  • Treats different kinds of water
  • Easy to install
Cons
  • No notification alert
  • Does not add healthy minerals
  • May be bulky for some spaces

The APEC filter is impressive because it is elementary to install; it features a meager price and a high-efficiency ratio, the three most critical features every product must-have.

  3.   Best Affordable  Filter  – Express Water Reverse Osmosis Filter

 

Express WaterMeet the next best water cleaning system. This is a unit which features an effortless, yet highly efficient design. The construction was undertaken by scientists who understand the operations of reverse osmosis, who also know how vital space utilization is in every home.

The Express water filter system is one of the rare filters that can retain all beneficial minerals present in water for our general wellbeing. Furthermore, beneficial metals such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, and many more are not removed during the filtration; thus, you get to ingest clean, tasty, but healthy water.

The Express RO system is straightforward to set up and doesn’t demand external help or extra time. It features six different filters to cater to all its water cleaning processes. Each screen comes with a different color coding, making maintenance very simple and cost-effective.

Features of Express Water

  1. 10-step filtration process
  2. Wastewater pure water efficiency of 2:1
  3. Remove 99% of contaminants
  4. Installing is easy
  5. Filters are color-coded
Pros
  • Easy to install
  • Efficient
  • Better tasting water
  • Heavy-duty construction
  • Smart design
  • Offers an extensive life span of filters
Cons
  • Finding matching filters is hard
  • Sometimes it trickles
  • Slightly costlier than the rest

There’s no doubt that the Express Water Reverse Filter system is more than enough for your home water needs; thus, our high recommendation. It not only offers a smart design but also delivers great tasting water.

  4.   Best Energy-Efficient Filter – AQUA TRU Countertop Water Filtration Purification System

 

AQUA TRU Countertop Filtration SystemWhenever you hear the brand name ‘Aqua’,  rest assured that you are getting top-notch water with all its great qualities. The AQUA TRU team has brought forth their best product yet, the AQUA TRU Countertop Filter System. This is a reverse osmosis system, which is very different from the typical RO systems seen around. First and foremost, instead of being installed underneath your sink, it comes as a countertop model.

This RO system utilizes the necessary five-step filtration method, to deliver the best version of water to your doorstep in minutes. The materials used in constructing this filter cause it to be lightweight and extremely portable. This also means that the AQUA TRU can be taken on camping, hiking, and other travelling trips with ease.

Up to 600 contaminants found in your tap water are removed, when the AQUA TRU filter is used. This is a fantastic amount when compared to the number of other products swear to remove. Perhaps, the best feature of this water filter is how durable it is. The filters in this system remain operational for up to 12 months, with the membrane lasting about three years without the need for any maintenance.

Features of AQUA TRU Countertop Water Filtration Purification System with Exclusive 4

  1. 4 – stage ultra-reverse osmosis technology
  2. No plumbing required
  3. Bpa free
  4. Certified to NSF standards by iapmo
  5. Under-the-counter ro system
Pros
  • Portable
  • Compatible with any faucet
  • Easy to install
  • High-quality design
  • Effectively removes contaminants
  • Less wastage
Cons
  • It has no storage tank.
  • The unit manually turned on and off.
  • Connection not very tight

The AQUA TRU filter is truly a fantastic product and the best option for all those who don’t have enough under the sink space for a traditional RO system.

  5.   Best High Capacity Water Filter – iSpring RCC1UP-AK 100GPD High Capacity, Boosted Performance  7-Stage R.O. Drinking Water Filtration System

 

iSpring RCC1UP-AKLast on our list is the only water filtration system from iSpring. Meet the iSpring Water Filter System. Out of all units we encountered to create this masterpiece article, this is the only one with whopping seven-stage water filtration. This means an even more thorough filtration process, which results in the cleanest and healthiest water one can ever wish for.

The seven-stage filtration system removes over 1000 different contaminants from your water source, including asbestos, mercury, arsenic, sodium, chlorine, and many more. It is a pressure-boosted system that uses its pressure-boosting feature to reduce water wastage. No doubt, the pre-installed booster pump is one of the best features of this system and the rarest since it is hardly seen among the traditional RO systems.

You’ll certainly revere and adore this water system because it helps reduce the desire to purchase bottled water. The tank is wide enough to accommodate all your pool but cute enough to stay beneath your sink without catching attention. Furthermore, the booster, unlike many others, is very silent during its operations and cannot be heard when normal kitchen operations are underway.

Features of iSpring RCC1UP-AK 100GPD 7-Stage Drinking Water Filtration System

  1. 7-Stage Reverse Osmosis
  2. Alkaline Remineralization
  3. Removing over 1,000 contaminants
  4. Equipped with electric booster pump
  5. Three pre-filters
Pros
  • Nsf storage tank
  • Easy to install
  • Exemplary customer service
  • Impressive architecture
  • Long-lasting filters
  • High faucet flow rate
Cons
  • Low production rate
  • Leaking issues
  • Expensive

We recommend this water system for all those who desire to connect their filters to other devices such as ice makers, coffee makers, and refrigerator outputs. It features a 1-year warranty and a money-back-guarantee from iSpring headquarters.

Best Reverse Osmosis Filters – Buyers’ Guide

What happens if the Aqua we so desperately desire is filled with substances that are detrimental to our wellbeing? To solve such issues a reverse osmosis system is what is required. However, when you’re looking to purchase a water cleaning system, there are many things you will have to be aware of, one of which includes its operations and how it must be used.

Many household owners do not have any idea about how these filtration systems work, or what they are even though they have heard about them and their importance. The buyer’s guide below caters to all the questions of potential buyers of R.O. filters. The first section seeks to change this narrative by explaining how this system operates, as well as some standard terms you’ll encounter when looking for a reverse osmosis filtration system.

We will also discuss the necessary features to look out for when selecting a water filter, their importance, how they work as well as any health risks if any. Some frequently asked questions found online have also been answered by experts in the field.

How Does a Reverse Osmosis Water Work?

The first thing you might ask is what exactly is a reverse osmosis system? Also commonly known as an RO system, the reverse osmosis system is a water purification technology with the sole aim of removing the polluting particles present in your water, bypassing your water through a semipermeable membrane. This system is pervasive because it differs from another filtering system that doesn’t deal with smaller particles in water. The RO either suspends or dissolves smaller particles in your water, such that the total quality of your pool will be better.

With such operations, it is safe to say that all molecules, ions, and other smaller particles will be removed with ease once you make use of an RO system. There is another process that is considered reverse osmosis filtration. This process involves the removal of salt from saltwater, which is done for wastewater treatment, recycling, and even the production of energy. From this definition, we move on to the basic operations of the RO system.

Understanding the basic principles of osmosis can help a great deal when you’re trying to figure out the reverse osmosis systems and how they work. The movement of water from a weaker saline solution to a stronger one sums up the process of osmosis. This happens because all answers are naturally always seeking to move to areas of higher concentration.

Furthermore, the process of reverse osmosis is very similar to its predecessor, but the only difference lies in the movement. In reverse osmosis, an external force is exerted to a concentrated solution such that, it moves not away from the lesser concentrated solution, but rather towards it. During this process, all debris, bacteria, salts, and microorganisms present in the answer will be blocked from moving through the semipermeable membrane present.

Do I Need a R.O. Filter in My Home?

After understanding the entire process of reverse osmosis, it is only natural that you wonder its importance within your home. Many homeowners have knowledge about this system but have doubts as to whether it is a necessity or it can be done without. We all enjoy pure, clean water, especially when it runs from our taps. The truth, however, is that water from our taps isn’t always as clean as we might think, even though it looks evident while pouring out.

Tap water from your municipal area often still has some amounts of trace elements present, and these can often lead to the contraction of water-borne diseases, and unhealthy accumulation of unwanted contaminants in your body. Some of the pollutants include lead, nitrates, nitrites, and many others, which are highly dissolved as solids. These substances might not be dangerous in the beginning, but with regular consumption, they can cause a lot of damage to your body.

If you’re someone who suffers from kidney stones, these substances present in your water can be harsh to your kidneys. On the other hand, if the water from your tap is soft, it tends to weaken those with medical conditions. The production of clean and healthy water is easier with help from the reverse osmosis systems, which take all your tap water through the RO process.

However, there are several arguments for and against drinking ultra-clean water. Some people believe that drinking ultra-clean water can come with detractors, even though it is fantastic. They think that the cleaning process often removes some valuable minerals that aid in growth and development. Some effects of relying entirely on reverse osmosis technology for your water may cause muscle cramps, tiredness, general body weakness, and, in some cases, cardiovascular diseases.

What are some Things to Consider when Buying a Water Filter?

Reverse osmosis systems offer you peace of mind, knowing that your water will be pure, clean, and healthy. With several models available in today’s market, potential buyers have some design considerations they must consider to enable them to choose the best from the lot whenever they’re ready to invest in this technology. Knowing these helps make your selection process less stressful.

  • Water Pressure

The first thing to consider is the pressure being offered by your reverse filtering system. If the pressure is below 40PSI, it is safe to say that your filtering system will not operate as expected. There are some models of reverse osmosis systems that allow you to attach a booster or pump for added pressure to your waterline. Be sure to choose a model that helps increase the strength of your water, with or without a pump.

  • Storage

How do you wish to keep your reverse osmosis system? As a potential buyer, one needs to know their home and the best available storage space before making a purchase. There are under the counter models of reverse osmosis systems, and these can be kept in a cabinet underneath your sink. Usually, these systems are bulky; thus, they’ll require a tad bit more space. Create enough space not only for the system but also for its tank, to allow secure operations.

  • Water Usage

Reverse osmosis systems are very famous in every household because they tend to consume a lot of water. The water is filtered for safe consumption is lesser than the amount used in pushing away all contaminants to the drain. If your home doesn’t have the option to waste large amounts of water, finding an alternative filtering system will be ideal.

  • Source of water

Water to houses located in urban areas is usually sourced from a treated city location. For those located within suburban neighbourhoods, their water is most likely sourced from a well. The reverse osmosis system you opt for should be suitable for your water source, such that it offers you the best performance.

  • Remineralization

As stated earlier, the removal of harmful chemicals from your water can cause some beneficial substances to also reduce in quantity. To prevent this from happening, to reap all the benefits of clean water, potential buyers need to consider the purchase of reverse osmosis systems that have an alkaline remineralizer filter. These systems bring back all beneficial minerals that were once lost, back into your water.

  • Replacement Filters

The final consideration you will need to take seriously is in connection with your replacement filters, or lack thereof. Like every other product we purchase, reverse osmosis systems require regular maintenance. Due to this unit’s multi-stage filtering process, many owners often dread the maintenance period because it can be time-consuming and tiring. Before you make a purchase, one needs to make sure that they’re keeping track of every replacement for all the filters present, since some filters will require frequent changing than others.

All these design considerations listed are essential because they determine the peak of performance your system will offer you and your family. Ensuring that the model you choose meets all the requirements goes a long way to improve the quality of water you drink.

How do I Set Up a R.O. Water Filter?

Despite their multi-staged operations, the reverse osmosis systems usually are very merely and swift to install. There are some very easy to use models, which only require a connection to your faucet for them to operate. The other models require a more permanent installation, very installation steps that run through almost all filter systems. The R.O.  filtering system can be put together by yourself, without the help of any external professional.

It is crucial, however, that you purchase all additional parts beforehand if you plan on installing them away from your sink, in a storage s area or the basement. The purchase of other tools and items is because the reverse osmosis system is typically installed in a kitchen cabinet underneath your sink. These systems require a pure water faucet, and this faucet can only be done via the drilling of a new mountain hole. The drilling process will be made possible only after your local authorities have been informed, and permission has been given.

During the installation process of a reverse osmosis system, the toughest part involves the drilling of a mounting hole for your faucet. You can opt between a standard valve and an air gap unit. If your kitchen sink happens to come with an additional faucet hole, you will only have to remove the existing cover, instead of drilling a new hole altogether.

How do I Clean and Maintain my Filter?

The installation process is the most important thing you have to conquer because after that, there’s not much one is required to do, even with maintenance. You might experience shorter or longer intervals for filter changes, depending on the RO system you have and the source of your water. The typical, and average duration of use for a single filter is six months, with some models lasting longer and others lesser. The longer-lasting filters can be used for up to a year, before the demand for change. For the maintenance of this filtering system, there are some things every owner needs to know to help make their work easier.

The first thing to note is that, all the pre-membrane filters, or the filters before the reverse osmosis membrane needs to be changed every 6-12 months. The second thing to note is that, even though some RO membrane models can last up to four years without a change, the typical membrane must be maintained every 2-3 years. The final thing to note concerns the filters located after the RO membrane. These units tend to be more durable; thus, they can be changed after every year or every two years.

There are modern filer designs that offer a transparency setting. This allows the user to see their filters always thus, keeping them in the know of when to change their filter. Others tell you when to change your filter through LED lights notifications. No matter how different they might be, all the systems we have reviewed have an elementary maintenance schedule and procedure. They often don’t demand a lot of your time; neither do they require any additional tools for a more effective change.

Reverse Osmosis Water Systems – FAQs

What Substances It Removes?

One of the most advanced water purifying systems anyone can purchase for their homes is the reverse osmosis system. Depending on the quality of your water source, the RO system you are buying has the capability of removing up to 99.99% of the contaminants in your water, offering you pure and clean water always.

The contaminants blocked by an RO membrane are those that have an ionic charge, with a molecular weight higher than 200. Another group of particles that are usually stuck or removed are those that are larger than 0.0001 microns. The third group is those with higher ionic charge. These are bound to be blocked by the RO membrane. Let’s take C02, for example. This is a particle that isn’t usually blocked because they’re not highly charged.

R.O. systems do a great job of treating water; thus, they’re often used to clean a wide range of water sources. The R.O. filter works well with surface and groundwater. They are also used to take care of brackish water and can be found in the food and beverage industries.

A quality RO system does a fantastic job of removing up to 90% of all total dissolved solids in your water. These total dissolved solids, referred to as TDS, are inorganic components that are found in water. Some examples include sodium, calcium, potassium, and sulfates.

What Are the Health Benefits of Water Obtained From a R.O. Filter?

Many benefits are derived from the use of a reverse osmosis process. Some of these benefits have been duly described in the points below.

  • The first health benefit is that using an RO system helps to eliminate all water-borne particles in your water. This means that particles such as arsenic and lead are removed quickly, leaving only the beneficial components that aid in a healthy life.
  • The RO system ensures that all traces of lead or eliminated. Lead can cause a whole lot of health issues when consumed at high levels. Some adverse effects of overconsumption include fertility problems, blood pressure, nerve, and brain damage.
  • Another benefit is that the RO system does away with sodium in your water. Like lead, the presence and overconsumption of lead by humans can cause high blood pressure, liver, and kidney problems.
  • Better tasting water as a benefit of the RO system is subjective, thanks to the issue of personal preference. Some people love the taste of filtered water, while others hate it since it has traces of iron.

Are There Any Health Risks?

Just as there are several pros attached to the use of a reverse osmosis system, users and scientists have come across some cons or disadvantages. This isn’t to say that using these filters is terrible and must be eliminated. It merely means that as a potential buyer, one needs to be extra cautious when utilizing these systems.

Also, even though water may be contaminated, it still possesses some amount of beneficial substances that go a long way to keep us healthy and in shape. Some RO systems tend to eliminate these useful substances, ridding us of their health benefits. Some examples of these substances include calcium and magnesium. These are substances known to help with bone growth and development. Their absence in our water can cause tiredness, weak bones, and many other effects.

Even though this is identified as a health risk, there is no scientific proof backing the fact that RO systems themselves have created any new threats to our health.

Is a This Unit Like a Distiller?

The reverse osmosis system is often likened to a distiller because it makes use of a multi-stage filtration. In this section, we show you the characteristics of a reverse osmosis system, its essential features, and specifications, which make it different from a distiller. When you purchase a R.O. filter, there are some devices you come across;

  • Semipermeable membrane: this is a device designed to stop individual particles from reaching your tap. They are a very vital element in the water cleaning process, as they contribute significantly to the precision of the optimal quality and usability of your water.
  • Filters: Much like the distiller, RO systems come with a wide range of filters, each one is fulfilling a specific purpose. In a standard RO system, you come across sand, carbon, cartridge, and membrane filters.
  • Pump: The high-pressure pump is another feature of the RO system. These devices aren’t found in all RO systems, but their very beneficial when included. The pump is meant to assist in the performance of your RO over time and is also expected to help increase the flow.

Can I Hook It to My Refrigerator?

Yes, you can hook your refrigerator to a reverse osmosis system. To do this, however, there are some processes you need to adhere to. The first step is to shut off all cold water, which may be entering your RO system. There is a tube that connects your RO water faucet to your RO system; you need to locate that tube. After this tube has been found, you compare it to your refrigerator by running a ¼ polypropylene tubing from your RO system. The pipe should be up to 20 feet, but a length of 30 feet will also work correctly.

Can I give water From a Filter to Infants or Toddlers?

The bodies and internal systems of children and infants differ significantly from that of adults. As an adult, we have built resistance to specific actions and processes, which allows us to consume a lot of things without second-guessing. This isn’t the case for children since they’re now growing and developing immunity. Children and infants are prohibited from consuming purified or distilled water. This is because distilled or purified water has a high tendency of leaching minerals from the bones and teeth of your child. This often leads to weakness of bones and teeth, general body weakness, and high susceptibility to illnesses. As much as possible, keep such water away from your child.

How Long Will a Unit Last?

A reverse osmosis system is like every other product on the market today; it thrives on regular maintenance. If you wish to ensure that your system operates longer at its peak, you need to invest time and money into its preservation. Support of these units often includes more than a mere filter change. Some other activities include the fixing of worn-out storage tanks, faucets, and then the filters. The typical lifespan of an RO system is within 2-5 years, and this is mainly dependent on the types of filters used and the type of water being processed. If your water is extra dirty or contaminated, it will demand more effort from your RO system, which can wear it out faster.

Do Filter Units Need Electricity?

In most cases, there isn’t any RO system that requires the use of electricity. This is because they run mostly on water pressure. The water pressure is responsible for the pushing of contaminated water into the system, and the pushing of contaminants out of your order. The only instance where electricity will be required. Is when you’re using an electric-pressure boost pump. Another unit that might require power is the ultraviolet lamp. These devices aren’t found in standard filtering systems because they usually don’t need them. Using an RO system or pump that demands electricity will incur extra cost to you; thus, you need to be mindful of your choice before purchase.

Can I Drink Water From a Filter While Fasting?

Fasting is a process in which you go through a period without meals. The best way to determine if you can drink water from an RO system after or during fast is to test it out. This is because we all have different internal systems, and they operate and react differently. You can check how well your system responds to RO filter water by fasting for a short period and checking the TDS reading on your RC or distilled water. The text on these systems should be around 1-3ppm to ensure its consumption safety. If your body doesn’t react in a positive way to this water while you fast, it is best to avoid it with this time.

Can I Drink Water From a Reverse Osmosis Filter Every Day?

Drinking this water daily isn’t bad in itself. This is because filtered water is clean, pure, and healthy. This, in turn, means that regular consumption can go a long way to keep you active and energized throughout the day. Some theories explain, however, that the daily use of this water may lead to illness. This belief stems from the fact that RO systems remove some of the beneficial substances present in water, while they’re eliminating contaminants. Elements such as calcium and magnesium, which are great for bone and joint formation, may be removed, causing us to experience weakness and general body pains with time. These effects aside, we believe that it is safe to ingest mineral-free purified water daily because it is not harmful to your body.

Final Verdict

The reverse osmosis systems deliver the best filtration capability, are very quick and simple to install, plus they each have a unique and innovative design that offers the best tasting water to your home. With help from customers and experienced designers, we have lined up the very best filters in the world, for your perusal. The best choice product, which is the Home Master Artesian Undersink Water Filter System, is an exceptional unit designed for you and your family.

With its multi-stage filtration process, you’re guaranteed of excellent performance and the cleanest of water you can ever get. This filter system surpasses many of its competitors’ thanks to its seven-stage filtration process. It is very easy to install underneath your sink, and it promises to deliver the purest water your lips will ever taste. For the best reverse osmosis system, you’re advised not to choose just any product.

Some quick tips to ensure that you benefit from quality include considering the models and brands reviewed in our article and studying the product specifications before making the final decision.